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Title: Frontiers in Non-invasive Cardiac Mapping: Rotors in Atrial Fibrillation-Body Surface Frequency-Phase Mapping.
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2015
Citation: Card Electrophysiol Clin.2015 Mar;(7)1:59-69
Abstract: Experimental and clinical data demonstrate that atrial fibrillation (AF) maintenance in animals and groups of patients depends on localized reentrant sources localized primarily to the pulmonary veins (PVs) and the left atrium(LA) posterior wall in paroxysmal AF but elsewhere, including the right atrium (RA), in persistent AF. Moreover, AF can be eliminated by directly ablating AF-driving sources or "rotors," that exhibit high-frequency, periodic activity. The RADAR-AF randomized trial demonstrated that an ablation procedure based on a more target-specific strategy aimed at eliminating high frequency sites responsible for AF maintenance is as efficacious as and safer than empirically isolating all the PVs. In contrast to the standard ECG, global atrial noninvasive frequency analysis allows non-invasive identification of high-frequency sources before the arrival at the electrophysiology laboratory for ablation. Body surface potential map (BSPM) replicates the endocardial distribution of DFs with localization of the highest DF (HDF) and can identify small areas containing the high-frequency sources. Overall, BSPM had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% for capturing intracardiac EGMs as having LARA DF gradient. However, raw BSPM data analysis of AF patterns of activity showed incomplete and instable reentrant patterns of activation. Thus, we developed an analysis approach whereby a narrow band-pass filtering allowed selecting the electrical activity projected on the torso at the HDF, which stabilized the projection of rotors that potentially drive AF on the surface. Consequently, driving reentrant patterns ("rotors") with spatiotemporal stability during >70% of the AF time could be observed noninvasibly after HDF-filtering. Moreover, computer simulations found that the combination of BSPM phase mapping with DF analysis enabled the discrimination of true rotational patterns even during the most complex AF. Altogether, these studies show that the combination of DF analysis with phase maps of HDF-filtered surface ECG recordings allows noninvasive localization of atrial reentries during AF and further a physiologically-based rationale for personalized diagnosis and treatment of patients with AF.
PMID: 25729463
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:Fundaciones e Institutos de Investigación > IIS H. General U. Gregorio Marañón > Artículos

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