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Title: Metabolic Reprogramming, Autophagy, and Reactive Oxygen Species Are Necessary for Primordial Germ Cell Reprogramming into Pluripotency.
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: Oxid Med Cell Longev.2017;(2017):4745252
Abstract: Cellular reprogramming is accompanied by a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) toward glycolysis. Previous results from our laboratory showed that hypoxia alone is able to reprogram primordial germ cells (PGCs) into pluripotency and that this action is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). As HIF1 exerts a myriad of actions by upregulating several hundred genes, to ascertain whether the metabolic switch toward glycolysis is solely responsible for reprogramming, PGCs were cultured in the presence of a pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) activator, or glycolysis was promoted by manipulating PPARγ. Conversely, OXPHOS was stimulated by inhibiting PDK1 activity in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. Inhibition or promotion of autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was performed to ascertain their role in cell reprogramming. Our results show that a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, autophagy, and mitochondrial inactivation and an early rise in ROS levels are necessary for PGC reprogramming. All of these processes are governed by HIF1/HIF2 balance and strict intermediate Oct4 levels. Histone acetylation plays a role in reprogramming and is observed under all reprogramming conditions. The pluripotent cells thus generated were unable to self-renew, probably due to insufficient Blimp1 downregulation and a lack of Klf4 and cMyc expression.
PMID: 28757909
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:Fundaciones e Institutos de Investigación > IIS H. U. La Paz > Artículos

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