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|Title:||An overview of cytokines and heat shock response in polytraumatized patients.|
|Citation:||Cell Stress Chaperones.2018 07;(23)4:483-489|
|Abstract:||Early after injury, local tissue damage induces a local and systemic inflammatory response that activates the immune system and leads to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This post-traumatic response often results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators and over-activation of the immune system, which occasionally results in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In parallel, a state of immunosuppression develops. This counter-regulating suppression of different cellular and humoral immune functions has been termed "compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS)." Both SIRS and CARS occur simultaneously even in the initial phase after injury. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been suggested to play a major role in development of SIRS, although the degree of involvement of the different cytokines is quite disparate. While TNF-α and IL-1β are quite irrelevant for predicting organ dysfunction, IL-6 is the parameter that best predicts mortality. The hyperinflammatory state seems to be the cause of post-traumatic immunosuppression and heat shock proteins (HSPs), which have been proposed as one of the endogenous stimuli for the deterioration of the immune system acting as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Extracellular HSPA1A released from injured tissues increase up to ten times immediately after trauma and even more in patients with MODS. It has powerful immune properties that could contribute to post-traumatic immunosuppression through several mechanisms that have been previously described, so HSPs could represent trauma-associated immunomodulatory mediators. For this reason, HSPA1A has been suggested to be a helpful early prognostic biomarker of trauma after severe injury: serial quantification of serum HSPA1A and anti-Hsp70 concentrations in the first hours after trauma is proposed to be used as a predictive biomarker of MODS and immunosuppression development in polytraumatized patients.|
|Appears in Collections:||Fundaciones e Institutos de Investigación > IIS H. General U. Gregorio Marañón > Artículos|
Fundaciones e Institutos de Investigación > IIS H. U. Ramón y Cajal > Artículos
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